The human body is a holonomic, redundant system?

Robert Full’s 2002 TED talk on modeling complex motion behavior by building in the “intelligence” into the structure of a robot had a slide with the equations representing the mathematics that supported the robot’s behavior. which was titled, “Piecewise holonomic energy conserving system,” which led me to look up holonomicity on Wikipedia. Holononocity, it turns out, “refers to the relationship between the controllable and total degrees of freedom of a given robot.” Furthermore,

[a] human arm [...] is a holonomic, redundant system because it has seven degrees of freedom (three in the shoulder – rotations about each axis, two in the elbow – bending and rotation about the lower arm axis, and two in the wrist, bending up and down (i.e. pitch), and left and right (i.e. yaw)) and there are only six physical degrees of freedom in the task of placing the hand (x, y, z, roll, pitch and yaw), while fixing the seven degrees of freedom fixes the hand.



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